Category Archives: WSB

Jun 2018 – New publication on signature whistles in male alliances

The Dolphin Alliance Project and colleagues are pleased to announce the publication of our recent work on communication in Shark Bay’s “teams of rivals”, the male alliances…

Citation: King SL, Friedman W, Allen SJ, Gerber L, Jensen F, Wittwer S, Connor RC, Krützen M 2018. Bottlenose dolphins retain individual vocal labels in multi-level alliances. Current Biology https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.05.013.

Field methods at a glance: A trio of dolphins forages in the shallows near Peron Peninsula. The research team confirms their identities with photo-identification, records their vocalisations with a four-hydrophone array and obtains aerial video with either a helikite- or a drone-mounted HD video camera (photo: Simon J Allen).

Summary: Cooperation between allied individuals and groups is ubiquitous in human societies, and vocal communication is known to play a key role in facilitating such complex human behaviours. In fact, complex communication may be a feature of the kind of social cognition required for the formation of social alliances, facilitating both partner choice and the execution of coordinated behaviours. As such, a compelling avenue for investigation is what role flexible communication systems play in the formation and maintenance of cooperative partnerships in other alliance-forming animals. Male bottlenose dolphins in some populations form complex multi-level alliances, where individuals cooperate in the pursuit and defense of an important resource: access to females. These strong relationships can last for decades and are critical to each male’s reproductive success. Convergent vocal accommodation is used to signal social proximity to a partner or social group in many taxa, and it has long been thought that allied male dolphins also converge onto a shared signal to broadcast alliance identity. Here, we combine a decade of data on social interactions with dyadic relatedness estimates to show that male dolphins that form multi-level alliances in an open social network retain individual vocal labels that are distinct from those of their allies. Our results differ from earlier reports of signature whistle convergence among males that form stable alliance pairs. Instead, they suggest that individual vocal labels play a central role in the maintenance of differentiated relationships within complex nested alliances. 

Figure 1 from the paper deftly illustrates the strength of social bonds between first- and second-order alliance partners, while the spectrograms display the whistle contours of each individual male dolphin (King et al. 2018). Note the differences between contours relative to the strength of particular social bonds.

Media: There was some very nice coverage from funders National Geographic (which you can view at: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/06/dolphins-animals-courtship-friends/#), a great summary appeared in The Conversation (http://theconversation.com/male-dolphins-use-their-individual-names-to-build-a-complex-social-network-97780) and, 48 hours later, it’s pretty much everywhere!

BUBBLES! Are you talkin’ to me!? (photo: Simon J Allen)
Acknowledgements: Stephanie is a Branco Weiss Fellowship—Society in Science Fellow. Stephanie, Richard and Whitney received grants from the National Geographic Society. The study was also supported by a Swiss National Science Foundation grant to Michael. Whitney was supported by a Graduate Fellowship in Anthropogeny from the University of California, San Diego. Frants was supported by the US Office of Naval Research and a fellowship from the Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies, Aarhus University. Permits for the scientific use of animals were obtained from the Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions (DBCA), Western Australia. The University of Zurich and University of Western Australia granted animal ethics approvals. The authors thank RAC Monkey Mia Dolphin Resort, Monkey Mia Wildsights, and the DBCA’s Shark Bay Rangers, all field assistants and our human judges for their help during this study. Lastly, we grateful to three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on the manuscript.
Stay tuned for some more exciting findings in the next few months.

Jan 2018 – The papers and presentations of 2017

Happy 2018! Time for a quick update: The last year has been a productive one for the Shark Bay Dolphin Research Alliance (SBDRA), with successful field seasons in both eastern (#36!) and western (#11) gulfs, a solid showing at the 22nd Biennial Conference in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and a number of papers published.

With field seasons wrapped up, we went on our way to Canada for the conference. Quite a few of us shared flights with other members of the group, plus colleagues from other labs. In various airports, we’d find the time to catch up and talk marine mammal science… oh wait. No, we wouldn’t. We’d just stare at our mobile devices…

 

 

Members of the SBDRA gave eight oral presentations and one poster presentation…

 

We also had a lovely ‘Friends of Shark Bay’ dinner for a gaggle of researchers past, present and future…

 

Amongst a few others, we published a paper on male alliance behaviour and mating access in the open social network of Shark Bay’s bottlenose dolphins (http://www.nature.com/articles/srep46354) in Nature’s Scientific Reports.

 

Also in Scientific Reports, another on sexual displays involving posturing and sponge presentation by male Australian humpback dolphins across north-western Australia (http://rdcu.be/w3tL).

 

There are so many intriguing parallels in behaviour and social complexity that exist between some of the cetacea and the great apes, but who would have thought that one charismatic, tool-using species might remain undiscovered until late 2017!? Congrats to Michael and colleagues on this wonderful result: http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(17)31245-9.

 

2018 is shaping up to be a bumper year for papers and fieldwork. We look forward to sharing it with you, so stay tuned…

July 2017 – Field seasons start (and the Dolphin Alliance Project turns 35!)

The Shark Bay Dolphin Research Alliance field teams have now been back on the water for a month or so in Western Oz. This surely makes it time for a pictorial update of the first successes in pursuit of data on dolphins.

 

First things first, having kicked off in 1982, the Dolphin Alliance Project turns a healthy and productive 35 years old this season. Happy 36th field season DAP!

 

When packing for the field, there were a couple of team mascots a little concerned about whether or not they were joining us…

 

Indeed this day of departure image was no set-up – the door was left open and we came out to the project ute to find these rascals staking their claim…

 

One team went East (to Monkey Mia) with the hounds, while the other went West (to Useless Loop) with new team members and a recently serviced ‘Squidward’…

 

The Dolphin Alliance Project got amongst the action early, with popping males and foraging females on a glassy morning out…

 

The Dolphin Innovation Project got sampling on some glassy evenings in Useless Inlet…

 

And while Sonja did all the work driving and retrieving boats, Nahiid got busy with some serious shell photography (what a trooper!)…

 

Ol’ Bytfluke, the sponging grandmother, chasing brunch in a channel off Monkey Mia…

 

A trio of adult males from the 2nd-order alliance, the ‘Kroker Spaniels’, snagging near the pearl farm in Red Cliff Bay…

 

More of Stephanie’s acoustic targets, some of the ‘Hooligans’ alliance snagging in Whale Bight…

 

A beautiful young lady, Dokley, bow-riding in the shallows off Useless Loop…

 

Here is the delightful sponger Daiquiri in the Denham Channel, 2007…

 

And here she is, same fin, same old shark bite, same behaviour, same place, 2017…

 

Everyone’s favourite, the little boat-friendly Kimo in Useless Inlet…

 

And Kimo making photo-ID easy…

 

For those champing at the bit for an update on Osmo, the King of the Inlet, who lost his dorsal fin in a big fight over a female in 2016…

 

Here he is in 2017, looking cool, calm and healed…

 

And speaking of legends, here is the ‘Silver Bullet’ towing ‘Spongebob’ in the inaugural Dolphin Innovation Project season, 2007…

 

The end of an era, the last time the Bullet is used to launch the Bob before being handed over to a new owner (no, Silver Bullet has NOT crossed the rainbow bridge just yet)…

 

Of course, being in Shark Bay means some pretty sunsets. Sometimes it is important to ignore the rule of thirds…

 

Sunsets AND dolphins…

 

AGAIN!

 

In case people are getting bored with dolphins and sunsets, here are some BUDGIES!

 

For the picky/pedantic/thorough folk out there: photo credits go to the likes of Stephanie King, Nahiid Stephens, Sonja Wild and I of the Shark Bay Dolphin Research Alliance (Dolphin Alliance Project and Dolphin Innovation Project); image collection and other sampling/research was carried out under permit from WA Dept of Parks and Wildlife; and no doggies, dolphins or budgies were harmed in the making of this blog.

Jan 2017 – The Dolphin Innovation Project turns 10 (or ‘Not-so-Useless Loop 2007-2016’)!

1 Cover

The Shark Bay Dolphin Research Alliance is pleased to announce the successful navigation of a decade of dolphin research in the western gulf.

The first 10 seasons of the Dolphin Innovation Project’s field research have yielded some 4,500 dolphin group surveys, which have formed the basis of one Honours, six Masters and one PhD theses, with three more PhDs in the making. The data and subsequent analyses from the western gulf/Useless Loop study site have led to 11 peer-reviewed scientific journal articles in Frontiers in Marine Science, Marine Mammal Science, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Molecular Ecology, Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences and more.

2 LIE3 shell

Along the way, we’ve identified over 60 sponging dolphins in the western gulf, discovered the function of shelling, and watched as a host of young males have galvanised into formidable second-order alliances. In recent seasons, we’ve added to ‘the usual suite’ of field techniques and started collecting underwater video records, laser photogrammetry data, helikite-mounted video and utilizing a hydrophone array.

We’re so very grateful to past field season leaders Alex Brown, Whitney Friedman, Livia Gerber, Anna Kopps, Dee McElligott, Krista Nicholson, and Sonja Wild; as well as a plethora of sterling volunteers/research assistants (from as far and wide as Australia, Brazil, Canada, England, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Scotland, Switzerland, the US of A and elsewhere), without whom such long-term projects would not be possible.

And hats off to David Allen/Wolf Design for the superb logo(s)!

Wolf Design Logo Red

We extend our sincere thanks to various funding agencies that have supported this research, the University of Zurich and, of-course, Shark Bay Resources and the Useless Loop community for being so accommodating to our teams.

Following are some of the changes to dolphins and kit over the last decade:

4 Scott 2007 Scott 5 Scott 2016 Scott

Scott the sponger 2007 and 2016

 

10 Emu 2007 Emu 11 Emu 2016 Emu

Emu the sponger 2007 and 2016

 

18 Porthos 2007 19 Porthos 2011 20 Porthos 2014 21 2016 Porthos

Porthos, one of two remaining Musketeers 2007, 2011, 2014 and 2016

 

And here is how the kit and storage has evolved from 2007 to 2016:

22 2007 Kit and storage 23 2017 kit and storage

 

We’ve seen some amazing things and shared great times. 2017 brings our 11th field season and we simply cannot wait to get back out there to catch up with old friends (finned and otherwise), observe, listen, experiment, innovate and discover… and, even though few of us are actually marine biologists, this seems like a fitting way to end the blog…

24 Astronauts

 

Nov 2016 – Part II: The Return of the King

…after Osmo’s bruising encounter, we had a day of searching for, but not finding, Floppy’s Crew. Then another windy stretch kept us off the water. Five days later we were back out there, and found Floppy, Splitfin and Sherman, another member of their second-order alliance, filling the space where Osmo should have been. They were involved in another social interaction with some females. Where was Osmo? Had he succumbed? Were Floppy and Splitfin that fickle!? Or is that just what it takes to be a successful male in this busy, competitive bay? No time for mourning a loss. The ‘new’ trio were regularly in formation behind the female.

26 Sherm 1 27 sherm 2

We went on the search for Osmo a few more times without luck, and Stephanie’s field season had come to an end. We left Shark Bay with a sense of foreboding, but hoped Sonja and her team, continuing for another two months, might have some good news for us down the track…

 

 

28 Osmo returns

Yesssss!!! About three weeks later, we finally got a long-awaited whatsapp message from Sonja and the team… “Can anyone help us ID this finless dolphin!?” Apparently the lads Floppy and Splitfin, still with other members of their second-order alliance, were involved in a bit of intense socialising action when a big finless fella came charging in… but then he held back and watched from the periphery. Discretion is the better part of valour! Here was Osmo, back, fin-less and healing.

Fast forward to early September when Sonja and I were back on the Bellefin Flats… who did we find? Floppy. Splitfin. And Osmo!

29 flop late30 split late31 osmo late

 

On our final day on the water in the western gulf for 2016, we headed down into Useless Inlet and found the big males, together, and consorting a female. Floppy was showing even more evidence of intense social interaction in recent times; We got a couple of celebratory leaps from Splitfin; And Osmo, off to the side. Foraging. The Return of the King!

32 split ouch 33 Split leap 34

 

Nov 2016 – Part 1: The Fellowship of the Inlet…

The dolphins of Shark Bay are famous for a number of reasons, not least of which is the strong tendency for adult males to form multi-level alliances in order to consort receptive females, compete against other alliances for access to females, and protect females from attacks by other alliances. In the feature photo above, the young fella Floppy, second from the left, mixes it (tho’ probably more as a spectator than a participant) with some of the big, well-established males on the Bellefin Flats in western Shark Bay in 2009.

By 2013, a first-order alliance of three lads, Floppy, Splitfin and Osmo seemed to be solidifying around the entrance to Useless Inlet (their bigger, second-order alliance known as “Floppy’s Crew”). 

2 Flop early3 Split1 Osmo key

We’ll never know whether Floppy and Splitfin’s superbly sculptured dorsal fin profiles are a result of shark bites or intense social interaction with other dolphins. “Rake marks” from the teeth of other dolphins are prevalent in these images. Osmo sports a distinctive dorsal keyhole.

The trio were a tight alliance by 2014 and 2015 field seasons. Here, Osmo has some rake marks from recent socialising; he surfaces close to Floppy; and Splitfin forages nearby.

5 Osmo key4 Osm and Flop6 split early

In early 2016, we found the now predictable and formidable trio consistently in and around the top half of Useless Inlet and the deeper channels near the dunes – Osmo now even more distinguishable with a deep tip-nick at the apex of his fin. Fairly typical of these guys (and many other first-order alliance trios), there often seems to be a tight pair and ‘the odd guy out’: Floppy and Splitfin the pair, Osmo the third wheel, but still never far. Synchrony in behaviours indicates a tight bond.

7 trio tight 19 Trio inlet 2 8 trio tight

Floppy’s Crew is one of Dr. King’s focal alliances, and here we were on a focal follow in the inlet shallows after Floppy, Splitfin and Osmo charged in and saw off some young males, then investigated the females with older calves.

10 focal follow

It seemed like every time we found these guys in 2016, Floppy and Splitfin would be tight together, travelling or resting, while Osmo would be off foraging. Longer dives. Unpredictable surfacing locations. This could make for a challenging and/or uneventful focal follow, but at least he was bulking up for winter! Being judgemental types, we started calling him ‘Osmo ate all the pies’.

12 Osmo pies

Then one evening, another trio (from the second-order alliance “The Baywatchers”) came purposefully in behind Floppy, Splitfin, Osmo and their lady-friend. Esther and his buddies, Doo and Caipirinha, surfaced synchronously behind our lads and their lady. The intent was clear… we’re here, we’re tight, and we’re interested…

13 Esther 14 Cai and Doo

We were stunned (and thoroughly impressed) to witness Osmo drop back a little behind Splitfin and Floppy, arch his back and flex hard, in a display with tail, head and open jaw out of the water (sorry, but I was just too slow on the trigger finger). He then positioned himself repeatedly between the approaching Baywatchers and the female. The Baywatchers soon backed off and Osmo, Floppy and Splitfin relaxed, their female retained. Osmo does eat all the pies, and he is the muscle… King of the Inlet!

15 mo flex 16 battle 1 17 trio lady

Later in June, we were surveying down into the inlet and we came across a wall of dolphins… they charged by us and it was clearly on – intense socialising between battling males over a female. As we tried to keep up with the melee, we started picking out recognisable fins. On some rapid surfacings, one big dolphin appeared finless. That individual surfaced consistently near Floppy and Splitfin… no, could it be…? On other surfacings, the freshly broken fin was ‘bouncing’ back upright… look! There is a tip-nick like Osmo’s (second from the left in the third image).

18 wall 19 broken 1 20 flappy

Ouch… that’s our big fella sporting an even-more-distinctive fin than that which he already had! Everything eventually calmed down, with the losing males moving back south into the inlet. Floppy, Splitfin and Osmo won the day, keeping the female Banquo… but at what cost?

21 Ouch 22 Losers 23 ouch 3

Banquo began foraging, while the lads followed slowly behind. Osmo then went back to some foraging of his own, but we thought he was moving pretty tenderly. We had to leave them at the end of the day, hoping we’d see them all again soon…

 

 

Oct 2016 – Another DIP field season comes to an end

Four months of fieldwork in the western gulf of Shark Bay saw generally poor field conditions in terms of wind and rain, but solid data collection none-the-less for both Ph.D. student Sonja Wild and Dr. Stephanie King. A big thanks to Research Assistants Helen Hiley, Sara Niksic, and Rebecca Cope for their time and effort. Following are some happy snaps from the season:

Stormy weather…2 Storm

A golden trivially makes its way up the food chain…3 Golden trevally end

Sherman shows off his healed shark bite and scans the shallows for fish…4 Sherman in the shallows

Caipirinha struts his stuff in front of a young male…5 Cai strut

Humphrey the Wonder Spaniel considers joining a male alliance…6 Humph n dolph

Pinata shows off her newborn calf…7 Pinata and Huitzilopochtli

Relaxing (snagging) with friends in Blind Strait…8 Snaggers

Little fins; big fin…11 Little dorsals big dorsal

Sublime South Passage…18 Sublime South Passage

Sunset on salt, the young Seamen and season #10…20 Sunset on salt

Watch this space for an update on the Dolphin Alliance Project’s 35th (!!) field season.

June 2016 – Six field biologists, five weeks through (a four-month field season), three opportunistic acoustic follows, two shelling dolphins… and a new calf for sponging Sunny…

This is more quick-photo-update than information-loaded-blog, but suffice to say that the weather has not been particularly predictable. We have concluded, based on a respectable sample size, that working for the Bureau of Meteorology (or indeed holding down any sort of weather predicting job) is clearly one of the best jobs in the world, since one can be completely wrong on a day to day basis, yet still get paid!

Enough of the whining though: we have exploited the good hours to the fullest, more team members arrived (now Stephanie, Sonja, Helen, Simon, Livia and Michael – so we could double the efforts with two teams on the water), and the data is rolling in: photo-ID surveys up over 150 already, into the double figures for focal follows (most with acoustic recordings and some helikite-cam footage), and the team and equipment functioning supremely well. We’ve said goodbye to Michael (too soon), but will have Sam on-site shortly (not soon enough!).

Following is a little photo story of the past few weeks. Disclaimer: Obviously the selection is somewhat biased toward when we’ve had smooth seas. We’re assuming no one is particularly interested in seeing whitecaps in the channel, fog and rain, or us tapping away in the office.

Featured image: A trio of allied males ‘snagging’ in the channel;

1. The kind of morning that holds considerable promise;

1 Sunrise

2. Humphrey the Wonder Spaniel assists with setting up the helikite and hydrophones;

2 Team

3. The team survey ‘KAN’ the dolphin in the shallows north of the salt loader;

3 Team

4. ‘JUL’, the occasionally shelling ol’ fella, up on the flats;

4 Julian

5. The team on a five hour focal follow in magic conditions;

5 Team

6. The team north of Heirisson and Bellefin Prongs following bad-boy ‘Kah-NUUUt’;

6 Team

7. ‘RAD’, the sea grass and the salt;

7 Radar and the salt

8. <sigh> ‘RAD’ in the Shark Bay aquarium… only better, because the only walls are those in RAD’s imagination;

8 Radar in the Shark Bay aquarium

9. Sublime sunset after a few epic days on the bay;

9 Sunset

10. Sometimes too much kit is never enough (but we do have several gulfs to cover!);

10 Kit

11.  Some channel boys and the Useless Loop salt mountain;

11 Dolphins and salt

12. The gorgeous ‘SUN’, foraging with a sponge and keeping her 3-day-old newborn close;

12 Sunny and Cloudy

Onward into June (if it could please stop raining).

May 2016 – New publication in Molecular Ecology

Hot on the heels of our recent publication in Frontiers (see: Rankin R, Nicholson K, Allen S, Krützen M, Bejder L, Pollock K (2016). A full-capture Hierarchical Bayesian model of Pollock’s closed robust design and application to dolphins. Frontiers in Marine Science 3: 25. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00025), we are very pleased to announce the publication (online early view) of our most recent paper in Molecular Ecology:

Title: Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

Authors: Simon Allen, Kate Bryant, Robert Kraus, Neil Loneragan, Anna Kopps, Alex Brown, Livia Gerber and Michael Krützen.

Abstract: The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic ‘offshore’ dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations.

The full citation is Allen SJ, Bryant K, Kraus R, Loneragan N, Kopps A, Brown A, Gerber L, Krützen M (2016). Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations. Molecular Ecology doi: 10.1111/mec.13622

You can find the paper at URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.13622/full

 

 

May 2016 – And so it begins in the West… with wind, William, and a weather balloon (sort of)!

 

The western gulf field season has kicked off with a ba… aad stretch of windy weather. Low-pressure system after low-pressure system in the aptly named roaring 40s to the south of the Land of Oz have meant the infamous ‘sausage highs’ over Shark Bay and the associated howling sou-easters. So much for the magnificent ‘May in the Bay’!

On the positive side though, the team was well and truly ready to roll when the first lull appeared. We scored four days, or part there-of, in a row, and made data collection happen while the sun shone.

We ventured into the Denham Channel just southwest of the ship loader on the first afternoon out. What started as an encounter with a single adult male dolphin soon turned into 26 animals, including members of four different male alliances and a few females. Cameras snapping, hydrophones in, dolphins a-socialisin’!

1 Social dolphins

1. A socialising sub-group of Shark Bay dolphins.

 

Conditions seemed to favour a look in Useless Inlet the following day… we were duly rewarded after a few surveys, finding the famous William the Concherer (yes, yes, we now know they’re not conches, but it sounds a whole lot better than William the Shellerer!). As the Inlet went to a glass out, the first focal follow of the season saw constant foraging, and several shelling events. Some hours later, we returned to the boat ramp at Cosy Corner, the evening sun casting glorious light. There is nothing Useless about this Inlet (unless, of-course, you’re a colonial white fella in desperate need of fresh water).

2 William the trumpeter 3 Inlet magic

2. William forages in Useless Inlet; 3. Bellefin and Heirisson Prongs float atop a horizonless bay.

 

The next day saw some surveys of the usual suspects in the shallows north of Heirisson Prong, before we again found ourselves in the Inlet. Plenty of action followed, including foraging dolphins (and cormorants), a male alliance moving in on some females and calves, and the satisfaction of lengthy focal follows with cameras, hydrophone array and the helikite deployed.

4 Dolphin breakfast5 Corm breakfast

4. Not cat and mouse, but dolphin and fish; 5. A cormorant tastes success too.

 

8 Five for fighting

6. Five for fighting

 

6 Team in action7 Phileas Fog

7. The team at work (Helen Hiley, Sonja Wild and Dr. Stephanie King), not fishing but ballooning; 8. Our trusty helikite/balloon (“Phileas Fogg”) with GoPro attached.

 

The last of our four data days involved more Shark Bay magic: dolphins, turtles, dugongs, cormorants, pelicans, a couple of hammerhead sharks… having now been off the water due to another five days of wind though… well, tomorrow is a new day.

9 When allies approach10 Floppy and Hartog

9. The stuff that prompts action stations when we’re on a follow – the approach of potential allies; 10. Said allies travel south with Dirk Hartog Island as the backdrop.

 

Stay tuned for more updates!